Manual Russian Security Policy in the Asia-Pacific Region: Two Views

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Russia's relations with Turkey, already strained over its support for the Assad regime, deteriorated further during this period, especially after the Turkish Air Force shot down a Russian jet fighter on 24 November Russia has an embassy in Luanda.

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Angola has an embassy in Moscow and an honorary consulate in Saint Petersburg. Angola and the precursor to Russia, the Soviet Union, established relations upon Angola's independence. Russia has an embassy in Cotonou , and Benin has an embassy in Moscow. Botswana and the Soviet Union initiated diplomatic relations on 6 March Despite its pro-Western orientation, Botswana participated in the Summer Olympics. The present-day relations between the two countries are described as friendly and long standing.

In March, the two countries also celebrated the 35th anniversary of establishing diplomatic relations. According to the minister of Foreign Affairs, Russia was one of the first countries to establish full diplomatic relations with Botswana. Trade and economic cooperation between Russia and Botswana are stipulated by the Trade Agreement of and the Agreement on Economic and Technical Cooperation of Russia and Botswana have had fruitful cooperation in a variety of fields, particularly in human resource development.

And Russia is still offering more scholarship in key sectors such as health, which is currently experiencing a critical shortage of manpower. Botswana also is one of the countries where Russian citizens do not require a visa. Diplomatic relations between Burkina Faso and the Soviet Union were established for the first time on 18 February However financial reasons has shut the embassies between the two nations. In , the embassy of the Russian Federation in Ouagadougou was closed, and in , the embassy of Burkina Faso in Moscow was closed.


Russia has an embassy in Bujumbura. Burundi has an embassy in Moscow. Relations improved when Burundian relations with the west deteriorated. Russia is represented in Cape-Verde by its embassy in Praia.

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In March , Russia agreed to provide free military aid to the Central African Republic, sending small arms, ammunition, and instructors to train the Central African Armed Forces. Both countries have established diplomatic relations on 17 July Diplomatic relations were later established once again after the breakup of the Soviet Union. The Gambia has an embassy in Moscow. Russia is represented in the Gambia through its embassy in Dakar Senegal. Russia has an embassy in Accra , and Ghana has an embassy in Moscow. In , assurances from Russia's ambassador to Ghana concerning assistance to sustain the fight against mosquitoes and environmental pollution in the region were very much appreciated since they were the major problems confronting Accra.

Guinea-Bissau has an embassy in Moscow , and Russia has an embassy in Bissau. Russia works on UN missions to help the people of Ivory Coast. The help is sometimes done from the Russian embassy in Abidjan, but is also done from the embassy in Accra, Ghana. From these point of view, Russia regarded the outcome of the extraordinary summit held in Dakar, Senegal , of the Economic Community for West African States.

Liberia and Russia resumed bilateral relations in March and cited a recent exploration of mine by a Russian company as a sign of future trade relations. Russia sharply criticised the NATO -led military intervention in the Libyan civil war, though it chose not to use its veto power on the United Nations Security Council to block it. On 27 May , Russian President Dmitri Medvedev said that although Moscow opposed the military operations, it believed Gaddafi should leave power.

In early June , Russian envoy Mikhail Margelov was received in Benghazi , the de facto headquarters of the Libyan opposition.

Russia and the Turbulent Waters of the Indo-Pacific

Margelov's stated objective was to broker a truce between anti-Gaddafi forces and the Gaddafi-led government. The establishment of diplomatic relations between Madagascar and the Soviet Union started on 29 September During the Malagasy political crisis , Russia's Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov stated that Russia is "concerned by the increased frequency of attempts on the African continent to resort to non-constitutional methods of solving internal political problems.

Russia has an embassy in Bamako , and Mali has an embassy in Moscow. Russia has an embassy in Nouakchott , and Mauritania has an embassy in Moscow. The Soviet Union and Mauritius established diplomatic relations on 17 March Russia has an embassy in Rabat , and a consular office in Casablanca. Morocco is represented in Russia by its embassy to Moscow. President Vladimir Putin had paid a visit to Morocco in September in order to boost economic and military ties between Russia and Morocco.

Diplomatic relations were formally established on 25 June , soon after Mozambique gained its independence from Portugal. In June , both Russia and Mozambique signed an agreement on economic cooperation. Relations between Namibia and Russia were considered "excellent" in by then-Namibian Minister of Education Nangolo Mbumba , while Russia expressed a desire for even stronger relations, particularly in the economic field. During said visit, the Minister said Russia was interested in investing in oil, hydro-electric power and tourism.

Top foreign ministry official Marco Hausiku and his deputy Lempy Lucas represented Namibia in discussions with Trutnev. Russia has an embassy in Dakar and Senegal has an embassy in Moscow. The Soviet Union established diplomatic relations with Senegal on 14 June Diplomatic relations between Seychelles and the Soviet Union were established on 30 June , a day after the island nation gained its independence from the United Kingdom. Russia has an embassy in Khartoum and Sudan has an embassy in Moscow. For decades, Russia and Sudan have maintained a strong economic and politically strategic partnership.

Due to solidarity with both the United States and with the Soviet Union and with the allies of the two nations, Sudan declared neutrality and instead chose membership in the Non-Aligned Movement throughout the Cold War. Russo-Sudanese relations were minorly damaged when, in members of the Sudanese Communist Party attempted to assassinate then-president Gaafar Nimeiry , and Nimeiry pegged the blame on the USSR, thus enhancing Sudanese relations with the West, and were damaged again when Sudan supported the Mujahadeen in Afghanistan when the USSR invaded in Due to a common enemy , diplomatic cooperation between the two countries dramatically got back on track during the late s and early s, when Vladimir Putin was elected the President , and then the Prime Minister of Russia , and along with Chinese leader Hu Jintao opposed UN Peacekeepers in Darfur.

Russia strongly supports Sudan's territorial integrity and opposes the creation of an independent Darfurian state. Also, Russia is Sudan's strongest investment partner in Europe and political ally in Europe, and Russia has repeatedly and significantly regarded Sudan as an important global ally in the African continent.

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For decades there have been Sudanese collegians studying in Russian universities. Both countries have signed diplomatic missions on 11 December Russia has an embassy in Dar es Salaam , and Tanzania has an embassy in Moscow. Russia has an embassy in Tunis , and Tunisia has an embassy in Moscow. Russia has an embassy in Kampala and Uganda has an embassy in Moscow. After the end of the white regime in Zimbabwe , Robert Mugabe had strengthened his relations with both Beijing and Moscow as a result of intense western pressure on him.

Russia maintains strong economic and political ties with Zimbabwe and both countries had vetoed the UN resolution imposing UN sanctions on Zimbabwe which was proposed by both the US and the UK on 12 July The Russian Federation and Barbados established formal diplomatic relations on 29 January Both countries have established diplomatic relations on 25 June Russia is represented in Belize through its embassy in Mexico City and an honorary consulate in Belize City. With Bolivia the focus on relations with Russia is mainly economic, as opposed to political and strategic, as an agreement to invest in Bolivia's natural gas fields shows.

Russia’s activities and strategies in the Asia-Pacific, and the implications for Australia

It is seen to "help Latin America Ambassador Leonid Golubev told The Associated Press that he would like to see Russia's ties to Bolivia one day "approach the level" of its growing partnership with Venezuela. In amid improving relations between the two countries Bolivia and Russia signed various agreements pertaining to energy and military ties, mining activities and illegal drug eradication. Brazil—Russia relations have seen a significant improvement in recent years, characterized by an increasing commercial trade and cooperation in military and technology segments. Today, Brazil shares an important alliance with the Russian Federation , with partnerships in areas such as space and military technologies , and telecommunications.

Canada and Russia benefit from extensive cooperation on trade and investment, energy, democratic development and governance, security and counter-terrorism, northern issues, and cultural and academic exchanges. Costa Rica has an embassy in Moscow. Holders of a Costa Rican passport also need a visa from Russian authorities.

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Relations between the two countries suffered somewhat during the Boris Yeltsin administration, as Cuba was forced to look for new major allies, such as China, after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Relations improved when Vladimir Putin was elected as the new Russian President. Putin, and later Dmitry Medvedev , emphasized re-establishing strong relations with old Soviet allies. In that same year the two governments signed multiple economic agreements and Russia sent tons of humanitarian aid to Cuba.

Cuba, meanwhile, gave staunch political support for Russia during the South Ossetia war. Relations between the two nations are currently at a post-Soviet high, and talks about potentially re-establishing a Russian military presence in Cuba are even beginning to surface. Dominica and Russia have established diplomatic relations on 19 May Ecuador has an embassy in Moscow. During the New Jewel Movement , the Soviet Union tried to make the island of Grenada to function as a Soviet base, and also by getting supplies from Cuba.

In October , during the U. President Ronald Reagan maintained that US Marines arrived on the island of Grenada, which was considered a Soviet-Cuban ally that would export communist revolution throughout the Caribbean. In November, at a joint hearing of Congressional Subcommittee, it was told that Grenada could be used as a staging area for subversion of the nearby countries, for intersection of shipping lanes, and for the transit of troops and supplies from Cuba to Africa , and from Eastern Europe and Libya to Central America.

In December, the State Department published a preliminary report on Grenada, in which was claimed as an "Island of Soviet Internationalism ". When the US Marines landed on the island, they discovered a large amount of documents, which included agreements between the Soviet Government, and the New Jewel Movement, recorded minutes of the Committee meetings, and reports from the Grenadian embassy in Moscow.

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Eventually in , Grenada re-established diplomatic relations with the newly formed Russian Federation. Both countries signed diplomatic missions on 18 October , a few months after the Sandinista revolution. The nations have begun discussing cooperation in the areas of agriculture, fishing, shipbuilding, education, along with trade.

In October , the Surinamese foreign minister, Yldiz Pollack-Beighle visited Moscow for talks on concluding military and joint law enforcement training. Both countries have signed diplomatic missions on 6 June Russia is represented in Trinidad and Tobago through a non-resident embassy in Georgetown Guyana. Both countries have interests with each other since the Soviet Union. In , Sergey Lavrov and Knowlson Gift signed the protocol on the political consultations between the two Ministries.

Russia has an embassy in Montevideo and Uruguay has an embassy in Moscow. The diplomat said Uruguayan officials had shown interest in a floating nuclear power plant, when the project's presentation took place at the Russian Embassy recently. The first floating plant will have capacity of 70 MW of electricity, and about MW of thermal power. This year marks the th anniversary of diplomatic relations between Russia and Uruguay.

Afghanistan and Russia have shared a highly varied relationship from the midth century to the modern day. For decades, Russia and Britain struggled for influence in Afghanistan, strategically positioned between their two empires, in what became known as " The Great Game ". Following the Bolshevik Revolution , the new Soviet Union established more cordial relations with Afghanistan, and in became the first country to recognise Afghan sovereignty. Relations between the two nations became complicated following the communist coup known as the Saur Revolution. The new communist Democratic Republic of Afghanistan was highly dependent on the Soviet Union, and the Soviet support for the widely disliked communist regime, and the ensuing Soviet—Afghan War , led to a great hatred for the Soviets in much of the Afghan population.

The Soviets occupied Afghanistan in the face of a bitter ten-year insurgency before withdrawing in However, this relationship dissolved in along with the dissolution of the Soviet Union itself. On 13 September , the Soviet government, now dominated by Boris Yeltsin, agreed with the United States on a mutual cut off of military aid to both sides in the Afghan civil war beginning on 1 January The post-coup Soviet government then attempted to develop political relations with the Afghan resistance.

In mid-November it invited a delegation of the resistance's Afghanistan Interim Government AIG to Moscow where the Soviets agreed that a transitional government should prepare Afghanistan for national elections. The Soviets did not insist that Najibullah or his colleagues participate in the transitional process. Having been cut adrift both materially and politically, Najibullah's faction torn government began to fall apart, and the city of Kabul fell to the Mujahideen factions in April In , Russian President Dmitry Medvedev announced that he wanted to be more involved in Afghanistan, supporting development of infrastructure and the army.

Armenia's most notable recent foreign policy success came with 29 August treaty with Russia on friendship, cooperation and mutual assistance, in which Moscow committed itself to the defense of Armenia should it be attacked by a third party.